Nakhchivan has an ancient health history. Owing to the widespread natural medicine plants different illnesses could have been treated and this experience has been alive through the generations. Duzdag Physiotherapy center located at salt caves is an important medical center specialized in treatment of asthma and bronchial system illnesses.

Duzdag Physiotherapy Center
Increase of the allergic patients in the world begun seriously worrying doctors from the middle of the 20th century. Researchers have observed undergoing a cure in salt-mines of such illnesses after long searches. First time in 1871 this style of treatment (under the cave conditions) had been applied to the sufferers of the rheumatic poly arthritis in the pendent rocks and results of that treatment were successful. 

There are only a few caves of salt having microclimate ions of sodium (Na) and chlorine prevalence in the world and a very good example of such caves is the cave Nakhchivan Duzdag Physiotherapy Hospital, situated at Nakhchivan Salt Mine Base on the height of 1173 meters from the sea level, started to function on December 29, 1979 as a hospital with capacity of 50 beds. In 1980 the capacity of hospital was reached to 100 beds. The underground department of the hospital is situated in 14 km distance from Nakhchivan.


The hospital consists of two departments:

  1. The ground surface department is located in Nakhchivan Republic.

  2. The underground department is located within salt mine in mountain workshop 300 meters from the entrance in 110 meters of depth at 9 worked stroke. Its two of them are wards belonging to men, in another two the wards belonging to women, in one the ward belonging to children, in two- foyers for rest and etc. 

  3. Nakhchivan Physiotherapy Hospital has the following parameters of influence and treatment:

  4. The ground surface climate:

  5. The highness of area from the sea level-950 meters

  6. Annual average temperature 12-24 C

  7. In January 5-10C, in June 35-40C

  8. Relative humidity 40-45%

  9. Annual amount of rainfall 200-300 mm

  10. Atmospheric pressure 1020

  11. Quantity of sunny days -260-280


The underground department climate:
The highness from the sea level-1173 meters
Temperature 19-20 C
Atmospheric pressure 682
Relative humidity 23-35%
Weather speed 0-0,1 m/s
High dispersed NaCl ions
While not ill  17. 5 ml/m3
While ill  12. 5 ml/m3
Oxygen  20%
Noise -15-20 DB
The thickness of salts mine 8, 2; the ingredients of Salt stone: NaCl-98, 4%; CaCl-0, 04%;    
MgCl-0, 06%;  

While the patients are in the mine pit the temperature may increase 0.05 C, the relative humidity may increase 5-10%.

In Nakhchivan Physiotherapy Hospital the Spleoteraphy is conducted in conformity with the methodical recommendations of the hospital of Uzhgorod city in Ukraine. The patients, during 2-3 days get adapted to hospital zone. After it, starting from 18:00 up to 8:00 adults 20-24 séances and the childrens 14-18 séances place themselves in the underground department. During this period, depending on the side effects of the diseases, health conditions may change.


After the treatment finished it is observed 65-70% of recovery among the adults and 65-70% recovery among the children. Together with going to salt mine, if needed the patients can get some medications, physic procedures, therapeutic physical training, thorax massage and etc.


The medications are recommended as less as possible (if the patient is getting the kotriokostereoids, the doze is gradually decreased). Spleoteraphy is carried out when there is not suffocation attack and within the period of remission.      


There is compiled the list of indications and after effects of salt mine treatment at Nakhchivan Spleoteraphy Hospital. Nakhchivan Spleoteraphy Hospitals preference over other Salt mines is connected with the fact that as it is located in horizontal position the patients enter into the underground department already in the adapted from. Ventilation, in hospitals worked strokes - similar to chess, is natural; that means the weather flow speed is about 0-0,1m/s. The salt mine is stable with natural and high disperse Na+ Cl+ ions. Microbes are less in the salt mine. The hospital is situated in highly ecological clean zone. For this reason there are entirely not any poisonous gases (methane gas).


There are the following indications and after effects for the salt mine treatment.


  1. Pre asthma

  2. Bronchial asthma 1st level, inflectional-allergic and topical form easy and easy and middle range of bad form;

  3. Bronchial asthma 1st level, breath deficiency 1st and 2nd levels, heart cases 1st level;

  4. Bronchial asthma 1st level, with collateral chronicle non obstructive bronchitis and chronicle pneumonia of 1st and 2nd levels (remission stage);

  5. Remission stage with chronicle bronchitis asthma;

  6. Allergic rhino sinusoidal pathologies;

  7. Pollinates disease;  


Absolute side effects:

  1. Bronchial asthma 2nd level;

  2. Bronchial asthma 1st level with heavy running, diffused pneumonic sclerosis, breath deficiency 3rd level, heart case 3rd level;

  3. Disease of Bronchi ataxia;

  4. Lung abscesses gangrenes;

  5. Lung tuberculosis all forms and stages;

  6. Deficiency of blood circulation of 3rd level;

  7. Heart cases sub compensations and de compensation phase; Hypertonic disease of 3rd stage;

  8. The disease of gastro duodenal erosions;

  9. Tireo toxicosis;

  10. The disease of kidney stone;

  11. Anemia;

  12. Diabetes of 2nd and 3rd levels (dependant on insulin).  


Relatively after-effects are the followings:

  1. Absence of upper and lower extremities;

  2. Enurez;

  3. Chronicle poly arthritis disease;

  4. The anatomic changes of the nasal cavity (polyps, adenoids); Chronicle hepato cholestisits.


In 2003 there was carried out the reconstruction and refurbishment works in the underground department of the hospital which can meet the modern requirements, the underground department was enlarged and equipped with modern technology. 300 meters of entranceway of the underground department was reconstructed, it was installed a lightening system along the way. The electricity system the underground department was completely renewed. In the underground department the entrance was reconstructed and the new transformer was installed. It was appointed the new shuttle bus to take patients to the underground department and back. It was done a 5 km of capital repairs on the road coming from Sharur-Nakhchivan main way to the underground department. The department was tackled with necessary soft and hard inventories.


The underground department was additionally upgraded with 100 more beds. Spleoterapy treatment effect, ie, improvements in children 4 or observed at the end of 5th day. Seniors slightly different. The disease process, a group of patients after 2 weeks of healing, some at the end of treatment, recorded after 15-30 days in some of them returning to their environment. In these times crises of suffocation, coughing decreases. Choking attacks in children 4 completely cut off, or 5th day. At the end of the treatment of leukocytes in the blood-eosinophils (white blood cell called granulocytes or asidofil in the cell) with a high amount is reduced and also reduced the amount of sputum eosinophils, erythrocytes (blood in the large number of cell types), a decrease in the rate returns to normal or reduced. Time to breathe sometimes returns to normal lungs, the bronchial tract is cleared. Patients will breathe the air more comfortable, normalizes heart rate or tachycardia (increase in the number of heart beats per minute) knows a little seen, with increased systolic and diastolic (blood pressure) is reduced. Electro-loaded T-tooth width of the diagram falls, blood plasma histamine (the chemical in the body tissues), the amount is reduced. Reaches the normal level of potassium lost. Calcium venatriumun increased rate decreases.  


In summary, the treatment effect spleoterapinin special micro-climate of the cave, the absence of allergens, as a result of constant baro metric pressure and the positive effect to prevent allergic inflammation, allergic reactions and as a result, break the chain of clinical, biochemical effects in the leads.In the past times this health center was a branch of the Babek (province of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic) State Hospital with 50 beds capacity and later on 100 beds capacity from 1982. The height of the hospital is 1.173 meters above the sea level, it is 12.2 km far away from Nakhchivan city in the second basic stone department of the salt-mines, cave is developed in the 300 meters long from entrance and 9 halls of 110 meters depth. The distance between the Duzdag mine and the hospital is 2.4 km.



The rich natural resources Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is also famous for its natural treatment objects. The people from different corners of the world visiting these treatment objects are healed very soon. The Daridagh Balneological (arsenic water) Hospital is situated in the arsenic water bed area at 8 km distance from the city of Julfa. It was established on the basis of the mineral water bed in 1978. With the help of the Daridagh arsenic mineral water different heart diseases, support-action organs peripheric nerve system, venereal diseases, women diseases, anemia and other diseases are treated in this hospital.


The chemical composition of the DARI DAG arsenic thermal water is: 

1. As (arsenic) + 0,27 mg1
2. B (boron) + 00,38 mg 1
3. Y (iodine) + 9,9 mg 1
4. Cl (chlorine) + 00,4 mg 1
5. Se (selenium) + 00,8 mg 1
6. Ba (barium) + 0,5 mg 1
7. Fe (ferrum) + 00.02 mg 1
8. Br (bromine) + 00,9 mg 1
9. Ge (germanium) + 00,5 mg 1
10. So4 (sulphur) + 00,9 mg 1
11. K (kalium) + 0,20 mg 1
12. Ca (calcium) + 00,10 mg 1
13. Na (sodium) + 0,19 mg 1
14. Mq (magnesium) + 0,62 mg 1
15. CO2 (carbon) + 0,10 mg 1 

Diseases, curative doses & using methods of arsenic water:
1. Spinal-buttock reticulates - 10/12 days ( taking a bath once per day)
2. Rheumatic  polyarthritis  10/12 days (taking a bath once per day)
3. Osteochandrosis  12/14 days (taking a bath  once per day)
4. Liver and biliary tract disease - 10 days (taking a bath  once per day)
5. Skin disease  12/14 days (taking a bath  once per day)
6. Nerve disease  12/14 days (taking a bath  once per day)
7. Gynecological disease  10/12 days (taking a bath  once per day)
8. Anemia - drinking arsenic water under  physicians control
9. Metabolic disorder - drinking arsenic water under physicians control
10. Malaria - drinking arsenic water under  physicians control

The following institutions did researches before determining the curative doses of Dari-Dag healing water source: Institute of Scientific Researches and Institute of Treatment by natural-physical means (methods), Azerbaijan State Medical Institute named after N. Narimanov and the Physiological department of Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences. Many professors theory the effect of treatment by using arsenic healing water is described and confirmed.

Professor Alishir Musayev discovered in his researches that taking an arsenic bath treatment more than 10-12 minutes may course dilatation of vessels. The famous researchers as. Boshkoboynikov in 1830, Sulikidze and Arkhilov engaged in making researches about arsenic water Dari Dag in 1868. Langbaren studied physical and chemical composition of Dari Dag arsenic water source in 1928. Later on the Azerbaijan Institute of Cardiology - Scientific Researches and Institute of Medical Treatment with natural physical means, Azerbaijan State Medical Institute and Department of physiology of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences continued the same researches. 

Every patient is checked very carefully doctors or senior medical nurses before they take a bath inside the building of Dari Dag out-patient clinic. They firstly measure the patients blood pressure. If the patients arterial pressure is below norm which is accepted in medicine as congestive heart failure the same patient is not allowed to take an arsenic bath.

The results of researches and practices proved that if patients suffer from congestive hart failure or cardiovascular ectasia (dilation) obviously they will feel themselves very bad during taking an arsenic bath and even in most of cases taking an arsenic bath may cause faintness (syncope) in patients. 

The advantages of Dari Dag arsenic water are: 
• According to its chemical composition the Dari Dag arsenic water source belongs to a group of arsenic mineral waters having no vitriol in its composition. These characteristics of Dari Dag arsenic water differs it from all other arsenic waters and makes it more effective in treatment of different diseases. 
• The level of arsenic in Dari Dag healing water  is 40% less than level  of arsenic in Renkago, Italy arsenic water source 
• Daily output of Dari-Dag arsenic water source is 450.000m3
• According to its chemical composition Dari-Dag arsenic water is reach with alkaline which activates the function of stomach, intestine and liver. Generally speaking it improves the digestion system and alkaline effects / helps the absorption of arsenic by human body. It is also obvious that the best of arsenic waters according to their qualities are those arsenic sources that have alkaline-salt mixture type.  Because of above mentioned superior qualities the Dari Dag arsenic water source is not only famous in Caucasus but also in the world. 

According to compositions there are many famous arsenic water sources in the world like Renkago in Italy and in France. 
The Dari Dag arsenic water source is totally different from those arsenic water sources according to its specific composition. 
The level of arsenic in Renkago/Italy in comparison with Dari-Dag is much more  but its composition is not alkaline. It is not absorbed sufficiently by human body and does not give necessary curative effect. 

The level of arsenic in famous arsenic water source in France is very low. Because of these distinguishing qualities Dari Dag arsenic water source is considered superior in the world.
Having balanced correlation between salts contained in physical-chemical composition of Dari Dag arsenic water increases the curative effect of this healing water. This thermal water source is called Shefa SU by local people taking into consideration very high curative effect which was proved in many cases. At present time the most of the people\patients who has above mentioned health problems try to cure it   by natural means- taking an arsenic bath. Dari Dag arsenic water contains 8,5% dissolved carbon dioxide gas , many other sulfide arsenic combinations  and different salt components. The average temperature of the arsenic water source is +58 
Experiments-researches proved that Dari-dag arsenic water also effects positively on separate elements of blood in parallel with stimulating and activating blood forming process. So after drinking 1-3 table spoon of arsenic water 3 times a day within 30 days the number of hemoglobin and erythrocytes increased in balanced way. The prescribed dose of   arsenic water dose not only increase number of formal elements but also increases the functional capability of formal blood elements, resistance of erythrocytes, ostolik firmness\solidity also capability of farasitap in generally. In generally it strengthens the regeneration of blood cells and blood forming system actives.

It is obvious that arsenic drugs had been using in medicine for a long time ago. According to its composition arsenic drugs contain approximately 4 times more arsenic than in arsenic water of Dari-Dag. After taking arsenic drugs analogical changes also happen in blood generating system. The difference is that the effect of arsenic drug at the end of treatment course is weaker than   results achieved with Dari-Dag curative water.

Since 1930 Dari-Dag arsenic water had been using in treatment of malaria as a very important component of treatment.

Taking into consideration anemia, liver and enlarged spleen problems of those patients. Professor Yegorov prescribed arsenic water to his patients with malaria. From the very beginning of treatment he observed stopping of intensification of Malaria on those patients. At the end of treatment the patients with relapse in malaria, cirrhosis signs of liver and spleen prevented, composition of blood improved and liquid in abdominal cavity absorbed. Patients with very high level of anemia, chronic malaria followed with enlargement of liver and spleen after receiving curative dose of arsenic water during 30 days, 3 times a day and each time 25-30gramms at the end of 30 days dimension of liver and spleen turned to   its normal size.

Because of having alkaline and mineral salts in its composition the Dari Dag arsenic water very easily absorbed by human organs increasing the activity of digestive ferments and helps function of liver. It is also very interesting that patients having problem with high or low stomach acid pathology after having arsenic water with different dose and time frame the patient stomach acid regulated and in the end different types of gastritis cured. 

Because of having calcium and other mixture of salts in its composition Dari Dag arsenic water helps secretion of bile and improves the digestion of oil. Arsenic water also has positive effect on cardiac muscles and increases the function of heart. Especially those patients having toxic myocarditis after receiving treatment with curative arsenic water within 10-12 days weakness and apathy and toxic myocarditis signs which were observe on patients cured. 

Dari Dag arsenic water is very effective in treatment of purulent and tropic wounds. The effect of this thermal water is because of its composition which is reach in antibacterial substances. Dari Dag thermal arsenic water also improves metabolism. It is very effective in balneology treatment of some types of neurological pains and arthritis. Dari Dag thermal spring (out-patient clinic) has got two new blocks, 1 for woman and 1 for men.  Inside of this output clinic there are two baths and dimensions of each bath is    8m x 2.5m. Each section serves for 25-30 patients per hour. Patients having dermatological problems do not use the thermal baths inside the clinic building. Mainly they use thermal bath outside of clinic complex, because they take a sun bath after having thermal bath.